Electric generators and motors. Lorentz force

Do you want to better understand how an electric generator and an electric motor works?

The online electric generator and motor simulations on this page will help you to better understand how these machines work and what are some of their most important types.

Electromagnetic induction is the process by which an electric current is produced in a conductor when it is exposed to a magnetic field that changes with time. This current is produced due to the interaction between the magnetic field and the electrons in the conductor.

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831, who observed that moving a magnet inside a coil of wire generated an electric current in the wire. This discovery laid the foundation for the generation of electricity on a large scale.

Faraday’s law states that the magnitude of the electromotive force induced in a circuit is proportional to the change in magnetic flux through the circuit. Magnetic flux is defined as the product of the magnetic field and the area perpendicular to it. Therefore, when a conductor moves through a magnetic field that changes with time, the magnetic flux through the conductor changes, which induces an electric current in the conductor.

Electromagnetic induction is used in a wide range of applications, including electric generators, transformers and electric motors. Electric generators use electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric motors, on the other hand, use the electric current generated by electromagnetic induction to produce motion.

Electromagnetic induction is also used in electronic devices such as magnetic card readers or wireless technologies, such as wireless chargers, which use induction to transfer energy through magnetic fields.

Generator


Generate electricity with a bar magnet! Discover the physics behind the phenomena by exploring magnets and how they can be used to make a light bulb.

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Although this Java simulation can be run on your device, we recommend that for the better user experience, you run it on a device with a wider screen.

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Lorentz force I


When a current flows through a conductor placed in a magnetic field, the conductor is forced to move. The direction of this force is perpendicular to the current and the magnetic field.
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Lorentz force II


This is a second simulation to study the Lorentz force.
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DC Motor I


This simulation shows the principle of a DC electric motor. When current is applied to the coil, the direction of the current flowing in the left and right parts of the coil are opposite. Therefore, the direction of the force received by the coil is reversed, and the coil rotates. The direction of the current is changed by the commutator every half turn of the coil, so the coil continues to rotate in the same direction.
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DC Motor II


This simulation is another example of the operation of a DC electric motor.
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Homopolar electric motor


This simulation shows the principle of a homopolar electric motor. The homopolar motor is a motor that operates using only one polarity of the magnet. The homopolar motor has a very simple structure, is easy to make and is often used in schools to learn the principles of electric motors.
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